Lunar landers could use 3D-printed rocket engine parts that bring down manufacturing costs and production times.
NASA recently hot-fire tested a pair of 3D-printed components designed for rocket engines, a combustion chamber and nozzle. They are 3D printed out of a high-strength, hydrogen-resistant alloy and should withstand the combustion environments that until now only traditionally manufactured metal structures were able to.
The high-strength iron-nickel superalloy nozzle was printed using a method called laser powder directed energy deposition, which deposits and melts the metal powder to create freeform structures. This method let NASA turn out small- and large-scale components.
It lets aerospace engineers develop high-quality parts much faster than they could with traditional fabrication methods
July 2019 marked the 50-year anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing. While the world has seen incredible technological and scientific strides since then, the broader space industry has been in stealth mode—exploring what’s possible, and what’s next, for humankind in space.
In 2018, the space sector grew to an incredible $3.25 billion industry. A number of different technologies are driving this rapid growth, but the most promising one is industrial-grade 3D metal printing (a.k.a. metal additive manufacturing). Once met with skepticism, 3D metal printing has proven itself to be a cost-effective and efficient way to develop production-ready parts, making it the new darling of the commercial race to space.
It’s not clear whether the additive manufacturing supply chain will expand rapidly enough to meet growing demand for 3D-printed parts for spacecraft or launch vehicles.
When companies are starting out, it’s easy for them to turn to additive manufacturing service providers for a few parts, said Scott Killian, aerospace business development manager for EOS North America. “Once companies move into production, they’re going to have to figure out whether the supply chain can still meet their needs,” he added. “There’s a lot of ebb and flow right now on getting that supply chain to ramp up.”
Many space companies work directly with EOS, a German manufacturer of 3D printing machines, or print parts on EOS equipment operated by additive manufacturing service providers. The only rocket customer Killian can discuss is Launcher. The New York company developing a 3D-printed copper bi-metal engine has agreed to a joint marketing campaign with EOS.
Michael Hollenbeck will show how Metal 3D printing will encourage mass customisation, where the constrained volume in a satellite can be filled with a high-performance antenna that conforms to the space around it and provides lower loss and higher performance.
Michael Hollenbeck, Chief Technology Officer of Optisys, Inc. will speak at Satellite 2019 about Metal 3D printing and how it can help build the smallest and lightest functional antennas in the industry.The presentation will cover how Metal 3D printing will usher in an era of mass customisation, where the constrained volume remaining in a satellite can be filled with a unique high-performance antenna that conforms to the space around it and provides a lower loss, higher performance solution than any competing alternative.
Robust and refrigerator-like, the ‘Refabricator’ is poised to lead NASA’s recycling initiative for astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Set to launch 2018, the machine is capable of crunching plastic parts back into raw materials, and 3D printing them anew as tools and spare parts.
Preparing for “space at a premium”
NASA has awarded approximately $750,000 to the Refabricator project, taken on by Seattle-based space technology company, Tethers Unlimited Inc.
Niki Werkheiser, manager of In-Space Manufacturing at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center who will test the machine, comments “When we begin launching humans to destinations beyond low-Earth orbit, space will be at a premium.”
“It simply won’t be feasible to send along replacement parts or tools for everything on the spacecraft, and resupplying from Earth is cost and time prohibitive. The Refabricator will be key in demonstrating a sustainable logistics model to fabricate, recycle, and reuse parts and waste materials.”
Human travelers to Mars will require shelter from the harsh environment. To help generate ideas for how to build those Martian habitats, NASA recently awarded over $200,000 to citizen inventors working to created 3D-printable structures from recyclable materials and simulated Martian soil.
The teams are competing in NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, which is now in its second phase. The latest milestone required participants to print a structural beam that would undergo bend testing, with scores based on the use of recycled material or material like that found on Mars, and on the maximum load that the beam could support.
“These competitors are working to advance critical systems needed for human space exploration,” Lex Akers, dean of the Caterpillar College of Engineering and Technology at Illinois’ Bradley University, said in a statementfrom NASA. Bradley University has partnered with NASA’s Centennial Challenges program to run the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge. [How Will a Human Mars Base Work? NASA’s Vision in Images]
Mouser Electronics Inc. and Grant Imahara have announced the winning design in the International Space Station (I.S.S.) Design Challenge has been 3D printed in space.
Andy Filo, an engineer based in Cupertino, designed the satellite-launching device that is now in orbit. It is hoped that eventually the 3D printed device for the testing and deployment of Femto Satellites for the Internet of Space may be used by astronauts on missions.
The challenge set was to “help astronauts aboard the International Space Station with a device that improves their jobs or daily life.” As previously reported by 3D Printing Industry, Mouser Electronics Inc are frequent sponsors of such challenges. The satellite-launching device was 3D printed using Made In Space’s Additive Manufacturing Facility (AMF), who recently told us more about how 3D printing is advancing the space industry.
Canada Makes has announced its role in the development of a 3D printed satellite bracket that will be sent to space later this year.
To build the part, the Canadian additive manufacturing agency partnered with French metal manufacturers FusiA and Canadian communications company MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA). The project was funded by Canada Makes’ Metal Additive Demonstration program which is supported by Canadian research program, NRC-IRAP.
By using 3D printing to create the part, the group will reduce weight, optimize size and shape, and lower costs. According to Canada Makes General Manager, Frank Defalco, their “primary goal is to reinforce Canada’s additive manufacturing supply chain and this project is a big step in that direction.”
NASA has pondered the idea of manufacturing in space for nearly twenty years. Now, with the use of additive manufacturing technology, they are closer than ever before.
In a talk at the Additive Manufacturing for Aerospace, Defense and Space conference in London, NASA’s Dr. Raymond ‘Corky’ Clinton explains how the U.S. space agency is working with 3D printing to enable in-space manufacturing (ISM). Dr. Clinton is NASA’s Acting Manager of Science and Technology Office, at Marshall Space Flight Center. During this talk, Clinton gave an update on the space agency’s plans for the technology and possible challenges.
A company working to end American dependency on Russian rockets used 3D printing to prototype its latest development.
Aerojet Rocketdyne’s high-thrust AR1 booster engine can be used for heavy launch vehicles such as the Atlas V. It was commissioned by the Air Force to replace the RD-180, which is built in Russia and used on the Atlas V.
The same company that built the RS-25 engines for the space shuttle, Aerojet Rocketdyne proposed the AR1 to the U.S. government in 2014, arguing that it could be produced in the United States relatively inexpensively. The booster generates an impressive 500,000 pounds-force of thrust at sea level and runs on liquid-oxygen propellants and an oxygen-rich staged combustion kerosene engine.